The dated rocks are an anorthosite and a cross-cutting syenogranite giving ages of c. We consider this late magmatic pulse to be anorogenic, most likely reflecting a separate extensional event involving asthenospheric upwelling and decompression melting of the mantle.).The northern part of the Orogen (NE Africa and western Arabia) is dominated by juvenile Neoproterozoic rocks of the Arabian–Nubian Shield (ANS). island arcs and volcaniclastic sequences, back arc and fore arc spreading ridges and calc-alkaline intrusives) of the ANS are interpreted by most authors to have formed by processes in and along the margins of the Mozambique Ocean, which separated East and West Gondwana during the Neoproterozoic (Farahat ). Megif-Hafafit, Meatiq and El-Sibai) at low or apparently low structural levels in the Eastern Desert of Egypt are however controversial.This monograph consists of two parts («The research» and «The catalogue») and five appendices containing specific data.The smallest silver coins – chetveritses and poluden’gas (polushkas) with the value of respectively one-fourth and one-half of the den’ga (the main monetary unit of the Russian middle age period) were the main subject of this study. As a result of the analysis of all collected data, Russian silver coins typical for the monetary system of the 14th–17th centuries have been fully systematized and a detailed Catalogue has been compiled.Poluden’ga (literary meaning “half-den’ga”) with the value of a half of silver den’ga and the weight of 0,45–0,52 g was first struck in the Principality of Moscow in the late 14th century and it remained an integral part of the monetary system of Rus’ and of Russia for three centuries.The tiny silver polushka which by the mid 17th century weighed 0.08–0.09 g and was no bigger than 5 x 7 mm, was replaced in 1700 with a copper coin with the weight of approximately 3.10 g.
We also report ages from rocks cross-cutting the gneisses and the surrounding island arc affined assemblages that yield the hitherto youngest robust pre-Cretaceous intrusive ages in the Eastern Desert.
The ROC, as well as the primate thereof, officially ranks fifth in the Orthodox order of precedence, immediately below the four ancient Patriarchates of the Greek Orthodox Church, those of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem.
The official Christianization of Kievan Rus' widely seen as the birth of the ROC is believed to have occurred in 988 through the baptism of the Kievan prince Vladimir and his people by the clergy of the Ecumenical Patriarchate whose constituent part the ROC remained for the next six centuries, while the Kievan see remained in the jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate until 1686.
The study «Russisn coins (poludengas, chetveretses and polushkas) of the 14th–17th centuries» is a part of a larger study «Minor coin units of medieval Rus’ (chetveretses, polushkas and pula from the end of the 14th to the 17th century)», which was defended as a doctoral dissertation in 1999.
The other half of this work titled «Russian copper coins from the end of the 14th to the l6th century» was published as a monograph in Moscow in 1993.
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