Elucidating the pathophysiology of delirium

Several predisposing and precipitating risk factors have been identified for postoperative delirium.The development of delirium following cardiac surgery is associated with worse outcomes in the perioperative period.Several recent studies suggest an association between SDB and postoperative delirium.The aim of this systematic review is to examine the current literature on SDB, postoperative delirium, and cognitive impairment and to discuss the pathophysiology and perioperative considerations.

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The literature search identified 2 studies on SDB and postoperative delirium, 15 studies on SDB and cognitive impairment, and 5 studies on the effect of continuous positive airway pressure on cognitive impairment and delirium in older individuals.

The first crucial step in delirium prevention is the identification of at-risk patients before surgery.

The hypothesis for this prospective cohort study was that individuals with preoperative cognitive impairment and/or depressive symptoms would be at the highest risk for the development of postoperative delirium.

Other features of delirium may include psychomotor disturbances and variable emotional states.

Delirium can be categorized into three subgroups: hypoactive, hyperactive, or mixed. When making the diagnosis of delirium, agitation must not be misinterpreted as hyperactive delirium.

There is an acute change of consciousness, most times this complaint is brought forth by the patient's family or hospital staff.

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